Part 4: Guide to key external actors in the process: Civil society, the media, and the international community

Although parts 2 and 3 of this handbook are intended to assist anyone involved in a constitution- making process, the discussion is particularly directed to providing guidance to national actors involved in designing, developing, or undertaking such a process. Such national actors are usually connected to government in some way and often have a legal mandate of some kind. At the same time, there are also key nonstate actors that often play important roles in processes— both official and unofficial roles, and with both positive and negative impacts. Among the most significant are civil society actors, media organizations, and international actors.

In this part, the focus shifts to one of providing specific guidance to:

  • civil society and the media about roles they play, either when participating in the official constitution-making process (for example, making submissions on constitutional issues) or in situations in which they do not have official roles but wish to influence the process (ideally to make it more participatory, transparent, inclusive and nationally owned; and
  • international actors, particularly when they are leading or substantially influencing a process.