Civil society has contributed in a number of constitution-making processes through conduct of research, sometimes undertaken on an official basis for the constitution-makers, and sometimes done as part of an effort to influence the process in one way or another.
Research for constitution-makers has included work intended to improve civic education efforts (e.g., on the types of media that effectively reach particular groups in society), and to assist with opinion polls and focus groups to feed information to decision-makers about the perceptions, views, and attitudes of the public on particular issues or to provide statistics or facts about the current context. Civil society and academic institutions have also seconded researchers to the constitution-making body to research any issue requested by the constitution- makers (e.g., Afghanistan ).
In addition, civil society actors normally conduct research on specific issues connected to their main concerns, such as land reform or human rights protection. They often use such research to prepare submissions providing information and recommendations to constitution-makers about how key problems should be addressed in the constitution.